Five (5) Reasons Why Girl Child Education is Important in Nigeria

INTRO: Girl child education in Nigeria has been very poor from time immemorial. There is an ongoing argument about the origin of the ugly situation of girl child education in Nigeria. While a camp traces the root of the problem to the patriarchal traditional African society, another camp claims that it is one of the evils of colonialism. It is not in the interest of this piece to throw weight behind either of the camp. If anything, both the traditional African society and colonialism are culpable; but the time for blame game is over. Hence, it is instructive to bring to the attention of the relevant stakeholders, the importance of girl child education in Nigeria such as below.

#1 Girl Child Education is Important to Enable Women Contribute their Quota in the Development of Nigeria: The inexhaustible list of women leaders (past and present) who made immense contributions to the development of the country included Chief Abigail Olufunmilayo Ransome-Kuti, Margaret Ekpo, Dr Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala, Prof. Dora Nkem Akunyili, Oby Ezekwesili, Madam Farida Waziri, Madam Buch Emecheta, Madam Ndi Okereke-Onyuike, etc. These women of substance were able to achieve their various feats through education. Improved girl child education in Nigeria will add to the list of these women-leaders in Nigeria.

#2 Girl Child Education is Important to Enable Women Resist Being Victims of Trafficking Especially for Prostitution: According to the United Nations Inter-Agency Project on Human Trafficking, women are most vulnerable to trafficking when they are undereducated and poor. Proper education will equip girl children with the requisite skills and enlightenment needed for decent living rather than falling prey to the sugar-coated promises of traffickers.

#3 Girl Child Education is Important to Enable Women Achieve Financial Independence: Part of the causes of the oppression of women in the society is their overdependence on men for financial support. This condition forces them to submit to the whims and caprices of their financiers. Education empowers a woman’s wallet through boosting her earning capabilities. A report by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), said that a single year of primary education has shown to increase a girl’s wages later in life by 20 percent. The simple truth is that apart from the skills that are obtainable from education, the certificates obtained are more or less meal tickets.

#4 Girl Child Education is Important to Teach Women about Safe Sex: Educational curriculum mostly features sex education. There has been controversies about the appropriate age for giving sex education to children. This notwithstanding, a report insisted that girl who completes primary school is three times less likely to contract HIV. This explains why the World Bank calls education a “window of hope” in preventing the spread of AIDS among today’s children.

#5 Girl Child Education is Important in Order to Ensure Future Educated Generations: An African proverb says, “If we educate a boy, we educate one person.  If we educate a girl, we educate a nation.”  Educated women are more likely to ensure the education of her children than the male counterpart. Even the less educated ones in our society who regret their condition are seen toiling day and night to see their children through in school. The African proverb is true to the syllables.

Five (5) Observable Reasons Why Nigeria Needs to Diversify Her Economy

INTRO: There has never been such consensus on any socio-economic and political issues in Nigeria as there is on the need for the diversification of Nigeria’s economy. This is perhaps because the consequences will know no bounds. Right from 1960s, about the time when a Head of State that ruled Nigeria was reported to have said that Nigeria had money but that the problem was how to spend it, through the very period when another Head of State that ruled Nigeria invited all African countries to come to Lagos with their idols just to dine and wine with Nigeria’s petro-dollars under the code-name FESTAC ’77, to the present 4th Republic, Nigeria’s economy has been a mono-cultural economy in which oil constituted 95% of the Country’s export earning, and 70% of the government’s revenue. Since then, there have been sincere calls for diversification of the economy by revitalizing for instance, the erstwhile neglected Agric. Sector of the economy. Now, one may ask, why does Nigeria needs to diversify her economy, especially as oil provides such amount of revenue that could make a Head of State to announce with a glee that Nigeria had money?

#1 Nigeria Needs to Diversify Her Economy in Order to Achieve Economic Stability: The concept of economic stability simply means economic growth plus low inflation rate. Achieving economic stability is not possible in an oil-based mono-cultural economy such as Nigeria, owing to the vagaries of the international oil market. The link between the international oil market and Nigeria’s economy makes it that whenever the oil market sneezes, Nigeria’s economy catches cold. For instance, before the fall of oil price that started in 2014, Nigerian economy experienced robust economic growth of about 7% per year. “However, in the wake of the oil shock, growth slowed sharply in 2015 and the economy experienced an outright contraction in 2016. This would not have been the case in a diversified economy given the fact that non-oil sectors would have been performing in their various spheres.

#2 Nigeria Needs to Diversify Her Economy in Order to Create More Jobs: Economic diversification efforts such as the revitalization of the moribund Agricultural Sector of the Nigerian economy will create more jobs for the teeming unemployed Nigerian youths. New data published by the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) shows that the unemployment situation in Nigeria worsened having increased up to 14.2% in the last quarter of 2016, from 13.9% in the preceding quarter. This development according to the report made it the ninth consecutive quarter that the unemployment rate in Nigeria has increased. A diversified economy will absorb the majority of the unemployed Nigerians, reducing the unemployment situation in Nigeria to the barest minimum called the natural rate of unemployment.

#3 Nigeria Needs to Diversify Her Economy Because of Her Fast Depleting Oil Reserves: It is worthy of mention that fossil fuels are nonrenewable; if at all possible, it takes several millions of years. There are concerns that Nigeria’s oil reserves are fast depleting due to continued exploitation without further exploration, or luck in new discoveries. In 2016 for instance, the Group Managing Director of Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) said that pursuant to Nigeria’s vision of being a fully industrialized economy by 2020, the country needs to produce up to 15 billion cubic feet per day (bcf) of gas; and regretted that so far, there has been no addition to the country’s oil reserves. The implication of this fact is that Nigeria will one day have no oil to exploit hence, the need for diversification.

#4 Nigeria Needs to Diversify Her Economy Because Oil is Becoming Less Relevant: The relevance of oil is winding down due to technological advancement. Cars are the largest users of oil and today, technology has achieved the invention of electric cars which needs no oil. It follows therefore to mean that the demand of oil will soon crash especially as electric cars grew by 60% in Japan, a country in Asia which is the largest consumer of Nigerian oil. Japan has today more electric charge points than petrol stations. Diversification is therefore imperative against the technological trends of our jet age which continuously search for alternative sources energy.

#5 Nigeria Needs to Diversify Her Economy for Improved Standard of Living of Her Citizenry: We have demonstrated that the diversification of Nigerian economy will among other things bring about job creation and economic stability. These factors are germane in the improvement of the standard of living of Nigerians given that both will reduce poverty and starvation, and increase the per capita income of Nigerian citizens respectively.

Eight (8) Reasons Why the Nigerian Civil War Broke Out

INTRO: The horrible incidence of civil war between Nigeria and the secessionist Biafra between July 6, 1967 and January 15, 1970 is better imagined than experienced. The bloody war claimed millions of lives of Biafrans especially through the blockade strategy of the war. Several accounts of the war have been written either from experience, careful study, or both, and none of them is pleasurable to read given the reports of tear-jerking humanitarian crises that are rife in those accounts. For instance, the account on the effect of the blockade against Biafra which made the ribs of Biafran children countable, and their bellies floatable out of Kwashiorkor. The accounts advanced several reasons why the war broke out, such as below.

#1 Nigerian Civil War Broke Out as One of the Evils of Colonialism: Nigeria is a product of British colonialism which separated kith and kin, and united total strangers with the errors of the Berlin Conference 1884/85, and the Amalgamation of the Northern and Southern Protectorates of Nigeria in 1914. By these dastardly and insensitive colonial decisions, Nigeria emerged a multi-ethnic country, so that from Independence, ethnic politics remained at the centre of the circle in Nigerian politics. The first generation political parties in Nigeria then took ethnic wings and played for their respective parochial interests. One thing led to the order until the war broke out between the ethnic Igbo and an amalgam of Hausa and Yoruba ethnic groups. 

#2 Nigerian Civil War Broke Out Due to the 1966 Military Coup: That the January 1966 military incursion into Nigerian politics changed the destiny of the country is an understatement. The military coup opened the floodgate of political crises that climaxed with the Nigeria-Biafra Civil War. Although well-meaning and popular, the coup was promptly painted black by opportunists who tagged it an Igbo Coup. To make matters worse, the survival of some Igbo government officials such as Zik and Okpala in the coup, coupled with the reluctance of Major General Thomas Umunnakwe Aguiyi Ironsi to execute the champions of the botched revolution supported the conspiracy theory that pointed accusing fingers to Igbo young majors that constituted the greater part of the coupists. Then for vengeance, there were the counter coup, the pogrom, and other sundry crises which plunged the country into the 30-month bloody civil war in 1967.

#3 Nigerian Civil War Broke Out Because of Personality Issues between Ojukwu and Gowon: After the counter-coup in July 1966, barely six months after the maiden coup, the most senior in the Army, Brigadier Babafemi Ogundipe was denied his rightful throne in Dodan Barracks by the Northern mutineers that carried out the counter coup. Lt. Col. Danyuma Gowon instead was appointed the Head of State. This did not go down well with Ojukwu and he refused to take orders from Gowon who was also under him in the Army, although of the same rank. This left their relationship very acrimonious, and their respective egos blocked the voices of reason against the war, and the war broke out.

#4 Nigerian Civil War Broke Out Due to the Breach of Aburi Accord: In January 1967 when the crisis situation in Nigeria reached a crescendo, Lt. Col. J.A Ankrah of Ghana summoned the conflicting parties to a negotiation table in search of a ground for resolution. The negotiation produced the popular Aburi Accord in which Ojukwu got the Federal Government’s consent to change Nigeria to a confederation. This system of government unlike a federation allows secession. Upon arrival, the Federal Government headed by Gowon did a volte-face from the Aburi Accord, perhaps having been told of the implication of the confederation thing. The crisis situation worsened and the war broke out.

#5 Nigerian Civil War Broke Out Because of the Pogrom: It did not end with the counter coup. Igbo civilians were swooped upon and killed in their tens of thousands on the streets in the North. Gowon was on the radio giving the Igbos the assurances of their safety in the North while the Army were leading ethnic cleansing on the streets against the Igbo people. The pogrom which spanned some four or five months set off a massive exodus of the Igbos from the North. Charles Keil, an expatriate who stumbled into the eye of the pogrom recounted:

The pogroms I witnessed in Makurdi, Nigeria (late Sept. 1966) were foreshadowed by months of intensive anti-Ibo and anti-Eastern conversations among Tiv, Idoma, Hausa and other Northerners resident in Makurdi, and, fitting a pattern replicated in city after city, the massacres were led by the Nigerian army. Before, during and after the slaughter, Col. Gowan could be heard over the radio issuing 'guarantees of safety' to all Easterners, all citizens of Nigeria, but the intent of the soldiers, the only power that counts in Nigeria now or then, was painfully clear. After counting the disemboweled bodies along the Makurdi road I was escorted back to the city by soldiers who apologized for the stench and explained politely that they were doing me and the world a great favor by eliminating Ibos.  

This ugly condition of the Igbo people in the North set off a massive exodus of the persecuted people back to their Region. The resultant humanitarian crisis was huge in the East. Tens of people had to sleep in a room. Innocent Obieze-Ofu Ezeigbo reported a stage when couples had no qualms having sex in the night in the presence of other occupants of the room.

#6 Nigerian Civil War Broke Out Due to Gowon’s Divide and Rule Policy of Creation of Twelve States: Lt. Col. Yakubu Gowon’s effort to maintaining his authority informed the creation of the 12 states from the former 4 regions structure of the country. This was a political stroke geared towards muzzling the centrifugal thrust of the Eastern region. Gowon split each of the regions into 3 states. The Eastern region was split into South Eastern, Rivers, and East Central states; confining the core Igbos in the East Central state away from the oil-rich South Eastern and Rivers states. Ojukwu considered this an assault against his sphere of control and he gambled with secession.

#7 Nigerian Civil War Broke Out Because of the Secession: Out of frustration and feeling of rejection by the people of the East, and based on the recommendation by the Eastern Region Consultative Assembly which May 26, 1967 voted for secession, Ojukwu declared the Region independent and named it the Republic of Biafra. Secession is a grave offence in a federation. This prompted the Federal Government to initiate what it termed a “police action” in which the breakaway region was pounded with shelling. The poorly equipped Eastern region replied fire with fire and the war broke out.

#8 Nigerian Civil War Broke Out Because of the Youthful Exuberance of the Leaders: The duo of Ojukwu and Gowon were in their early 30s when they were saddled with leadership in their various spheres. The brazen aggressiveness of a typical youthful age tainted most of their decisions. It got to a time when Zik fell out with Ojukwu because of what he considered Ojukwu’s excesses.

Seven (7) Real Reasons Why Buildings Collapse in Nigeria

: The increasing spate of buildings collapse in Nigeria inspired this post. The most macabre of the horrible incidences was the September 12, 2014 SCOAN Church building collapse in Lagos, Nigeria which claimed a total of 115 lives who were mostly South Africans. The Church argued that the collapse was caused by an unidentified aircraft which allegedly hovered over the building before it crumbled. While the unidentified aircraft theory remains contestable, below are the real reasons why buildings collapse. 

1/ Buildings Collapse Due to Professional Incompetence: Some of the civil engineers parading the streets and offices for contracts are quacks, while majority of them are self-acclaimed. They end up erecting buildings of several architectural infractions. For instance, concrete before being approved is supposed to have passed through three different stages called batching, testing and curing. If a civil engineer hasn’t the full knowledge of these processes, the resultant building is most likely to be defective.

2/ Buildings Collapse Due to Faulty Foundation: Different forms of foundations are designed for different types of buildings and lands. Sometimes, foundation alone depending on the type of the land and building would need almost half of the money for the building before it could pass for strength. Civil engineers or even the owners of buildings try to cut cost and end up erecting the building on a faulty foundation that in no distant time would lead to a mighty collapse of the building.

3/ Buildings Collapse Due to Overload: The amount of loads that a building will carry are taken into consideration during its construction. There are three types of loads that a typical building must have to carry, failure of which, a tragedy will strike. These loads are: dead loads, live loads and wind loads. Dead loads are the materials used in constructing the building such as sand, cements and irons. This type of loads is compulsory for every building. Live loads are the things packed into the house such as people, household property and the likes. And finally, just as the name suggests, wind load is the pressure from the wind. Any building that receives loads beyond its carrying capacity is bound to fall.  

4/ Buildings Collapse Due to Change in Structural Design: Cases abound where original plans of buildings were jettison for a new one in the middle of the construction process or during reconstruction, during which time, more often than not, more floors were added. As a matter of fact, the SCOAN Church collapse was allegedly caused by the change in the original plan of the building, and the building like house of cards, crumbled perhaps due to either of the resultant reason numbers one, two and three above, or all of them.

5/ Buildings Collapse Due to Fake or Substandard Products: In a despicable bid to make more money, manufacturers make fake and substandard products which greedy civil engineers patronize for their selfish reasons. The building material markets in Nigeria are awash with fake and substandard products which are sold in their quantities for use in construction of buildings. This explains to a large extent the incessant collapse of buildings in Nigeria.

6/ Buildings Collapse Due to Natural Disasters: This is rare in Nigeria, unlike the countries of Europe and America where earthquakes, cyclones, hurricanes and the likes have brought buildings down. In Nigeria however, disasters such as flooding and fire outbreaks have led to the collapse buildings.

7/ Buildings Collapse Due to Age: Many buildings that have outlived their spans have collapsed in Nigeria. It is the law of nature that whatever goes up must surely come down. The high-rises in various cities of the country must in one way or another come down in its time. The Lagos State Government for instance, has been on demolition campaign, bringing down old and rickety buildings in the State in order to avoid impending dooms.     

Three (3) Reasons Why Lovers Undergo Blood Test before Marriage

INTRO: They call it pre-wedding blood test. Having decided to say: I do, lovers choose to undergo blood tests in hospitals and laboratories due to a litany of reasons. Good number of these reasons are quite controversial and contestable on religious and social grounds, but knowing the reasons is sacrosanct for making informed decisions, or for giving valuable advice.

1/ Lovers Undergo Pre-wedding Blood Test to Confirm Fertility: The social, psychological and biological implications of infertility is devastating. This forces lovers to subject themselves to fertility tests before taking the plunge into the lifelong marital adventure. While it has been argued in some quarters that the test is not necessary given the fact that it is God that shows mercy, early diagnosis of fertility problems makes timely intervention possible.

2/ Lovers Undergo Pre-wedding Blood Test to Prevent Sickle Cell Disease: This disease is a chronic blood disease which attacks the red blood cells that normally are shaped like discs, making them to look like crescents or sickles (hence, the name sickle cell). The abnormal shape of the blood cells affects their ability to pass through tiny blood vessels to supply oxygen to cells and tissue. Pre-wedding blood tests will prevent occasions of giving birth to a child with the disease especially when the test is followed up with professional advice from the medical personnel for or against the proposed marriage.

3/  Lovers Undergo Pre-wedding Blood Test Check HIV/AIDS and other STDs: Majority of all the sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV/AIDS, Gonorrhea, Syphilis, etc. are especially in their early stages only detectable through medical tests. Lovers undergo tests finding their status in those diseases in order to avoid further spread of the disease to their spouse or children.

Five (5) Strong Reasons against Federal Character Principle in Nigeria

: First muted by Murtala Muhammed in his address to the opening session of the Constitution Drafting Committee (CDC) in 1975, the Federal Character principle is a political instrument of ensuring representativeness of the diverse people of Nigeria in public positions and affairs. It was seen as an oily formula to silence the troubled waters in Nigeria and the panacea to the issue of political economic instability which obstructs the balancing of the North and South on the one hand and the various ethnic groups mainly the three dominant ethnic groups (Igbo, Yoruba and the Hausa/Fulani) and also other minority ethnic groups on the other hand. According to the CDC’s report of 1977, Federal Character refers to the distinctive desire of the peoples of Nigeria to promote national unity, foster national loyalty and give every citizen of Nigeria a sense of belonging to the nation notwithstanding the diversities of ethnic origin, culture, language or religion which may exist and which it is their desire to nourish, harness to the enrichment of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Federal Character principle has featured in Nigeria’s constitutions since 1979. Today, Section 14(3) of the 1999 Constitution as Amended provides: The composition of the government of the federation or any of its agencies and the conduct of its affairs shall be carried out in such a manner as to reflect the Federal Character of Nigeria and the need to promote national unity, and also to command national loyalty, thereby ensuring that there shall be no predominance of persons from a few states or from a few ethnic or other sectional groups in that government or in any of its agencies. There have been several calls to abolish Federal Character principle due to the reasons below:

1/ Federal Character Promotes Mediocrity: It is argued that Federal Character principle downplays merit in favour of the place of origin. In order words, it is not concerned with what but who is coming from where. By this, Federal Character accepts even a mediocre once the place of origin is satisfactory, thus sacrificing meritocracy at the altar of mediocrity. Critics argue that the functionality of the system possible only through meritocracy should take precedence in appointment of personnel into positions of authority.

2/ Federal Character is Unfair: This is an irony of the Federal Character principle. The political construct was designed for achieving fairness but critics see it as unfair, saying that it treats unequals equally, and there is no greater inequality than equal treatment of unequals. How fair is it to have equal representation in Nigeria’s diversities, especially in population?

3/ Federal Character Highlights Nigeria’s Diversity: It is known that Nigeria is a multi-ethnic country with over 250 tongues and tribes. The peculiar interest of Federal Character principle in places of origin of Nigeria’s citizens highlights what divides Nigeria rather than what unites it. It is noteworthy that this attribute of Federal Character principle runs foul to the efforts to achieving national integration.

4/ Federal Character Principle Lacks Sincere Implementation: A friend of mine once told me that even the Federal Character Commission, an institution charged with enforcing the Federal Character principle did not reflect Federal Character. I am yet to verify the assertion but the fact remains that certain tribes still dominate in public offices and positions. It is understandable, nepotism is baked into the DNA of Africans. According to Donasco Chris,
About 70% of Nigeria Foot-soldiers are from Hausa-Fulani. Is that Federal Character Principle?
About 80% of all Permanent Secretaries in Federal Ministries are from Hausa-Fulani. Is that Federal Character Principle?
About 80% of those given Oil Wells presently in the Oil from Niger Delta Region are from Hausa-Fulani. Is that Federal Character Principle?
About 60% of Generals in the Nigerian Military are from Hausa-Fulani. Is that Federal Character Principle?
This skewed representation is a product of nepotism by the northerners who for the most part have ruled Nigeria since the independence.

5/ Federal Character is a Suspicious Policy in Southern Nigeria: Many a southerners are suspicious of the Federal Character principle as a political machination in favour of the Northerners, especially as it is a brainchild of a leader from the North. It should be recalled that prior to the Civil War, Southerners dominated the leadership positions in Nigeria, especially in the army and academia. It is suspected that the then military leaders who were Northerners contrived the Federal Character principle in order to checkmate another possible domination of Northerners by the Southerners, especially, the vanquished South-Easterners. Thus, the Federal Character principle was believed to be a design for giving the Northerners an undue advantage. Aliyu Amani told a story:
I first came into contact with a distorted perception of the federal character principle years ago while serving the nation as an NYSC corps member. That distorted perception was projected by a fellow corps member, an Ibo lady, and graduate of the University of Nigeria Nsuka. She said they were told by their lecturers at the UNN that federal character is employed even in the grading process of WAEC examinations to the effect that a distinction pass in the North was equivalent to a credit pass in the south; a credit pass in the North is equivalent to an ordinary pass in the South; while an ordinary pass in the North is equal to an F9 in the South. When I posed to her the question: What then is the equivalent of a northern F9 in the south, she was lost for words.

This little encounter by Aliyu with the Ibo corps member is evident to the level of suspicion that the Southerners hold the Federal Character principle.

Five (5) Simple Reasons Citizens Pay Tax

INTRO: The history of taxation is age-long, dating back to 3000 – 2800 BC in ancient Egypt. Tax by definition is a charge (money, in the modern times), imposed by authority on persons, businesses and sales for public use. Oftentimes, tax is seen as a bad and exploitative instrument which government uses to deprive the citizenry of their hard-earned money. In spite of this negative perception, tax remains a civic duty that every citizen must perform so that the state could reciprocate with rights and privileges. There are several reasons for which citizens pay tax. For instance:

1/ Citizens Pay Tax to Enable the Government Provide Public Services: Public services are range of utilities that only the government can offer at prices with little or no profit, such as security, education, communication and health services. Governments provide these services to the citizens using the tax-payers’ money. Paying taxes simply puts more money in the public coffers for those services, and also justifies the citizens’ rights to the services.

2/ Citizens Pay Tax for Wealth Redistribution: Some tax systems such as the progressive tax system are designed to collect more money from the rich than the poor. This tax system demands that the higher you earn, the higher you pay; and by so doing, bridges the gap between the rich and the poor, and when by social spending, reduces poverty. Huge taxes levied on goods of ostentation and luxury are also meant for wealth redistribution at least to the extent that a poor has not gone for such goods or services.

3/ Citizens Pay Taxes as a Permit for Special Goods and Services: This is obtainable in a place where the government is interested in dissuading patronage of a given number of goods and services on health or social grounds. Heavy taxes levied on tobacco and alcohol are geared towards increasing the prices of the goods against affordability.

4/ Citizens Pay Taxes to Enable the Government Handle Emergencies: Disasters are real, and can occur when it will occur. Governments are able to come to the aid of victims of disasters within their territoriality and beyond with tax-payers’ money. Several lives have been saved from timely governmental interventions in disaster-stricken areas. The duo hurricanes of Harvey and Irma of 2017 that devastated parts of the United States, and Caribbean in which the governments swung into action, providing succor to the victims, are very good examples.

5/ Citizens Pay Taxes to Enable the Government Provide Public Infrastructure: Government requires money to develop and maintain good infrastructure. Proceeds from payment of taxes helps government to provide good roads, schools, hospitals, housing, railways, bridges, airports, recreational facilities, etc. The citizenry need those infrastructure for comfort and improved standard of living, and payment of tax makes them possible. 

Six (6) Reasons for Studying Political Science

INTRO: Political Science is the king of sciences. Aristotle called it the master science. It is simply the systematic study of power acquisition, power exercise, and power consolidation in the state. From the definition above, it is observable that Political Science amounts to a nullity without power at the centre of the circle of the discipline. Students of Political Science have often times been faced with the question of why they study Political Science. Below are some of the reasons for the study of Political Science.

1/ We study Political Science in order to be better citizens: This is the basic reason for studying Political Science. Leadership and followership training are in the domain of Political Science. Political Science in this way, stands out as the most relevant agent of political socialization, molding the citizenry to be better participants in res publica. This explains why Political Science calls herself the only institution for qualitative leadership training.

2/ We study Political Science for a career in Political Analysis: Political Analysis is a career opportunity for students of Political Science. The skills required for in depth study of political phenomena is acquired from the Study of Political Science. Political Science features a course titled Political Analysis which is designed to teach students of Political Science the technics and technicalities of political analysis. The importance of political analysis in governance is central as it concerns policy formulation, implementation and evaluation. Political Analysts offer consultation services, advisory and assistant roles to governments, even beyond borders.

3/ We study Political Science in order to be aware of our rights and duties: Study of Political Science teaches people their rights and duties as citizens. In this manner, the study of Political Science helps us to get the best out of our lives. It gives us confidence and ability to ward off intimidations from our fellow citizens who would have ordinarily exploited our ignorance of our rights in the society.

4/ We study Political Science because it helps us to understand the dynamics of the political system. A typical political system is complex matrix of power play so that a political novice would find it an incomprehensible maze of discordant political actions and inactions. The study of Political Science makes the convoluted political issues, actions and inactions of our daily life understandable and predictable. Political Science studies the past, compares it with the present and predicts the future.

5/ We study Political Science in order to remain informed on the latest politics around the world. This is important in the globalized world where countries no longer live in isolation. Policies of one country today affects the lives of the citizens of other countries of the world. The study of Political Science keeps students of politics informed, gives analysts a better understanding, and helps governments to adopt best practices, and adapt to changes.

6/ We study Political Science for academic reasons and intellectual exercise. Political Science is a discipline of its own with theories, approaches and methods for academic and intellectual purposes. Students of Political Science upon graduation are awarded relevant certificates which represent feathers on their academic cap, and basis for career in academics.

Five (5) Logical and Biblical Reasons Why Catholic Priests Don’t Marry

: Catholic priests are known for their life of celibacy. Records however, show that the life of celibacy that the priests live is a sheer convention rather than a hard-cast dogma of Catholic Church. What this means is that a radical Pope can change it tomorrow. The celibate life of Catholic priests is not as old as the Church. St. Peter, the first Pope of the Church was a married man; and the apostles that Jesus chose were, for the most part, married men. The tide began to turn against marriage in 325 AD, in the Council of Nicea which decreed that after ordination a priest could not marry. This decree hints the fact that marriages which predated the ordinations were allowed. Thus, in 385 AD, Pope Siricius left his wife (he married a wife before his ordination) in order to become Pope. In an obverse case, Pope Benedict IX in 1045 AD dispensed himself from celibacy and resigned in order to marry (his was not lucky marrying before his ordination, and could no longer bear the sexual starvation). Following the position of the Council of Nicea, Pope Gregory VII in 1074 said that anyone to be ordained must first pledge celibacy: priests [must] first escape from the clutches of their wives. The last straw that broke the camel’s jaw was the decree by Pope Calistus II as an outcome from First Lateran Council in 1123 AD, that clerical marriages were invalid. This decree made all the pre-ordination marriages which the Council of Nicea once allowed, a nullity. The Second Lateran Council, and the Council of Trent in 1563 reaffirmed the decree. “To our sex-obsessed culture, priestly celibacy seems a hard teaching of the Church, a heavy burden that must be borne with ascetic grit and iron resolve,” Stephen Beale wrote. Several reasons have been floated arising from the Bible, logic, and common sense why Catholic priests should not marry. Some of them are hereunder discussed.

1/ Celibacy is Superior to Marriage: It is the belief of the Church that celibacy is superior to marriage, and that it assists the more in achieving holiness. One of the Church Fathers, St. Augustine once wrote that nothing is so powerful in drawing the spirit of a man downwards as the caresses of a woman. In his Letter to the Corinthians, St. Paul explained it in clearer terms: “An unmarried man is concerned about the Lord’s affairs—how he can please the Lord. But a married man is concerned about the affairs of this world—how he can please his wife,” (1 Corinthians 7:32-3). St. Paul himself was a celibate and he wished everyone was like him, unmarried (7.7).

2/ Celibacy is a Time-honoured Tradition of the Church: Celibacy stands out as the pride of the Church. It is simply the source of the formidable aura radiating from the Church as the true institution of Christ Himself who was also a celibate. The position of the Church is evident in the words of the Popes of the twentieth century. In their words, celibacy is the “choicest ornament of our priesthood” (Pius X), “one of the purest glories of the Catholic priesthood” (Pius XI), and a discipline that makes the whole life of the priest “resound with the splendor of holy chastity” (John XXIII). As her most cherished tradition, Catholic Church’s body language to calls for change on the tradition of celibacy for priests has been: we can but we won’t.

3/ Priests are Married to the Church: the Church is often depicted as the Bridegroom of Christ in the Holy Book. Being Christ personified, priests are also married to the Church, and as such, remain “taken” in marriage market. In Catholic Church, priests are called “father,” and the Church is often called, “mother,” as another pointer to the matrimonial relationship between priests and the Church.

4/ Celibacy as a Sacrifice: In worship of God, many people have given up several life goodies. Celibacy in the priestly ministry of the Catholic Church is one of those sacrifices through which the faithful have approached the worship of the Almighty God. And that appears to be the zenith of sacrifices besides that of Christ on the Cross of Calvary. To every normal human being, sexual desire is a pain in the neck.

5/ Celibacy as a Detachment from the World: While praying for His disciples, Jesus Christ hinted that the disciples were in the world but were not of the world (John 17:16). Through celibacy, Catholic priests live out their detachment from the world. Marriage is a worldly institution. Jesus was point blank: “At the resurrection they neither marry nor are given marriage but are like the angels in heaven.” Celibacy helps catholic priests to concentrate in the pastoral ministry without worries from women and children that marriages bring about.  

Four (4) Reasons Why the Media Must Set Agenda for the Society

INTRO: The influence of the media on the perception of the people on public issues is empirically verifiable, and well-documented. As far back as 1922, Walter Lippman, a newspaper columnist was concerned that the media had the power to present images to the public. Little wonder why Bernard Cohen in 1963 observed that the press "may not be successful much of the time in telling people what to think, but it is stunningly successful in telling its readers what to think about.” The empirical confirmation of the truism of the Lippman’s 1922 position came only in 1968 when during the Chapel Hill Study, published in Public Opinion QuarterlyMaxwell McCombs and Donald Shaw studied the 1968 American presidential election and demonstrated a strong correlation coefficient (r > .9) between what 100 residents of Chapel Hill, North Carolina thought was the most important election issue and what the local and national news media reported was the most important issue. That study promoted the agenda setting theory of mass communication. Although, affirming the effectiveness of the agenda setting function of the mass media, the agenda setting theory of Mass Communication argues that media agenda does not reflect the reality. This however does not mean that media agenda setting in the society is dysfunctional. The mass media agenda setting function is important due to the following reasons:

1/ Agenda-Setting Molds Public Opinion for Policy Process: The strong correlation between mass media priority issue and public opinion has been verified in the Chapel Hill study of 1968 by the duo of McCombs and Shaw. This is why it is not uncommon to hear people say something like, “it is true, I heard/read it in the news.” By nature, people are followers, and this is manifested as bandwagon. Armed with the rare capability of reaching large number of audience simultaneously, the mass media have been able to exploit the bandwagon tendency of people in molding public opinion. Given the strategic importance of public opinion in policy formulation and implementation, agenda setting function of the mass media therefore helps to chart the waters for policy formulators to the overall betterment of the society.   

2/ Agenda-Setting Helps in Maintenance of Law and Order: Media content disseminated to the society are sieved and filtered through the process of media gatekeeping, bearing in mind among other things the maintenance of law and order in the society. In this manner, the media trivialize volatile issues or fundamentally doctor the content for law and order.

3/ Agenda-Setting Helps in Promotion of Democracy: The media in its agenda setting function have promoted democracy with several fronts of propaganda. Thus, scholars seem to have reached a common consensus that recognizes mass media’s critical role in democratization (Hall & O’Neil, 1998; Hyden & Okigbo, 2002; Jakubowicz, 2002; Pasek, 2006). Agenda setting function of the media tells the populace about current events, educates the electorates for meaningful contribution on public issues, and inspires participation which is the hallmark of democracy.

4/  Agenda-Setting Helps in Policing against Abuses: Be it in the political power box or in the streets, the media eye-of-god surveillance polices abuses. The simple knowledge that the media are out there and very ready to make a mountain out of a mere hill of an abuse has served as a deterrence to political, social, economic and or religious abuses. Agenda setting function of the media may not truly reflect the reality but it has achieved a noble feat in getting popular attention against heinous crimes and abuses in the society.   

Hall, R. A., & O’Neil, P. H. (1998). Institutions, transitions, and the media: A comparison of Hungary and Romania. In P. O’Neil (Ed.), Communicating democracy: The media and political transitions (pp. 125–146). London, UK: Lynne Rienner.
Hyden, G., & Okigbo, C. (2002). The media and the two waves of democracy. In G. Hyden, M. Leslie, & F. F. Ogundimu (Eds.), Media and democracy in Africa (pp. 29–53). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction
Jakubowicz, K. (2002). Media in transition: The case of Poland. In M. E. Price, B. Rozumilowicz, & S. G. Verhulst (Eds.), Media reform: Democratizing the media, democratizing the state (pp. 203–231). New York, NY: Routledge.
Pasek, J. (2006, August). Fueling or following democracy? Analyzing the role of media liberalization in democratic transition. Paper presented at the American Political Science Association Conference, Philadelphia, August 30–September 3.