Six (6) Reasons for Studying Political Science

INTRO: Political Science is the king of sciences. Aristotle called it the master science. It is simply the systematic study of power acquisition, power exercise, and power consolidation in the state. From the definition above, it is observable that Political Science amounts to a nullity without power at the centre of the circle of the discipline. Students of Political Science have often times been faced with the question of why they study Political Science. Below are some of the reasons for the study of Political Science.
1.     We study Political Science in order to be better citizens: This is the basic reason for studying Political Science. Leadership and followership training are in the domain of Political Science. Political Science in this way, stands out as the most relevant agent of political socialization, molding the citizenry to be better participants in res publica. This explains why Political Science calls herself the only institution for qualitative leadership training.
2.     We study Political Science for a career in Political Analysis: Political Analysis is a career opportunity for students of Political Science. The skills required for in depth study of political phenomena is acquired from the Study of Political Science. Political Science features a course titled Political Analysis which is designed to teach students of Political Science the technics and technicalities of political analysis. The importance of political analysis in governance is central as it concerns policy formulation, implementation and evaluation. Political Analysts offer consultation services, advisory and assistant roles to governments, even beyond borders.
3.     We study Political Science in order to be aware of our rights and duties: Study of Political Science teaches people their rights and duties as citizens. In this manner, the study of Political Science helps us to get the best out of our lives. It gives us confidence and ability to ward off intimidations from our fellow citizens who would have ordinarily exploited our ignorance of our rights in the society.
4.     We study Political Science because it helps us to understand the dynamics of the political system. A typical political system is complex matrix of power play so that a political novice would find it an incomprehensible maze of discordant political actions and inactions. The study of Political Science makes the convoluted political issues, actions and inactions of our daily life understandable and predictable. Political Science studies the past, compares it with the present and predicts the future.
5.     We study Political Science in order to remain informed on the latest politics around the world. This is important in the globalized world where countries no longer live in isolation. Policies of one country today affects the lives of the citizens of other countries of the world. The study of Political Science keeps students of politics informed, gives analysts a better understanding, and helps governments to adopt best practices, and adapt to changes.
6.     We study Political Science for academic reasons and intellectual exercise. Political Science is a discipline of its own with theories, approaches and methods for academic and intellectual purposes. Students of Political Science upon graduation are awarded relevant certificates which represent feathers on their academic cap, and basis for career in academics.

Five (5) Logical and Biblical Reasons Why Catholic Priests Don’t Marry

Five (5) Logical and Biblical Reasons Why Catholic Priests Don’t Marry
INTRO: Catholic priests are known for their life of celibacy. Records however, show that the life of celibacy that the priests live is a sheer convention rather than a hard-cast dogma of Catholic Church. What this means is that a radical Pope can change it tomorrow. The celibate life of Catholic priests is not as old as the Church. St. Peter, the first Pope of the Church was a married man; and the apostles that Jesus chose were, for the most part, married men. The tide began to turn against marriage in 325 AD, in the Council of Nicea which decreed that after ordination a priest could not marry. This decree hints the fact that marriages which predated the ordinations were allowed. Thus, in 385 AD, Pope Siricius left his wife (he married a wife before his ordination) in order to become Pope. In an obverse case, Pope Benedict IX in 1045 AD dispensed himself from celibacy and resigned in order to marry (his was not lucky marrying before his ordination, and could no longer bear the sexual starvation). Following the position of the Council of Nicea, Pope Gregory VII in 1074 said that anyone to be ordained must first pledge celibacy: priests [must] first escape from the clutches of their wives. The last straw that broke the camel’s jaw was the decree by Pope Calistus II as an outcome from First Lateran Council in 1123 AD, that clerical marriages were invalid. This decree made all the pre-ordination marriages which the Council of Nicea once allowed, a nullity. The Second Lateran Council, and the Council of Trent in 1563 reaffirmed the decree. “To our sex-obsessed culture, priestly celibacy seems a hard teaching of the Church, a heavy burden that must be borne with ascetic grit and iron resolve,” Stephen Beale wrote. Several reasons have been floated arising from the Bible, logic, and common sense why Catholic priests should not marry. Some of them are hereunder discussed.

Four (4) Reasons Why the Media Must Set Agenda for the Society

INTRO: The influence of the media on the perception of the people on public issues is empirically verifiable, and well-documented. As far back as 1922, Walter Lippman, a newspaper columnist was concerned that the media had the power to present images to the public. Little wonder why Bernard Cohen in 1963 observed that the press "may not be successful much of the time in telling people what to think, but it is stunningly successful in telling its readers what to think about.” The empirical confirmation of the truism of the Lippman’s 1922 position came only in 1968 when during the Chapel Hill Study, published in Public Opinion Quarterly, Maxwell McCombs and Donald Shaw studied the 1968 American presidential election and demonstrated a strong correlation coefficient (r > .9) between what 100 residents of Chapel Hill, North Carolina thought was the most important election issue and what the local and national news media reported was the most important issue. That study promoted the agenda setting theory of mass communication. Although, affirming the effectiveness of the agenda setting function of the mass media, the agenda setting theory of Mass Communication argues that media agenda does not reflect the reality. This however does not mean that media agenda setting in the society is dysfunctional. The mass media agenda setting function is important due to the following reasons:
1.     Agenda-Setting Molds Public Opinion for Policy Process: The strong correlation between mass media priority issue and public opinion has been verified in the Chapel Hill study of 1968 by the duo of McCombs and Shaw. This is why it is not uncommon to hear people say something like, “it is true, I heard/read it in the news.” By nature, people are followers, and this is manifested as bandwagon. Armed with the rare capability of reaching large number of audience simultaneously, the mass media have been able to exploit the bandwagon tendency of people in molding public opinion. Given the strategic importance of public opinion in policy formulation and implementation, agenda setting function of the mass media therefore helps to chart the waters for policy formulators to the overall betterment of the society.   
2.     Agenda-Setting Helps in Maintenance of Law and Order: Media content disseminated to the society are sieved and filtered through the process of media gatekeeping, bearing in mind among other things the maintenance of law and order in the society. In this manner, the media trivialize volatile issues or fundamentally doctor the content for law and order.
3.     Agenda-Setting Helps in Promotion of Democracy: The media in its agenda setting function have promoted democracy with several fronts of propaganda. Thus, scholars seem to have reached a common consensus that recognizes mass media’s critical role in democratization (Hall & O’Neil, 1998; Hyden & Okigbo, 2002; Jakubowicz, 2002; Pasek, 2006). Agenda setting function of the media tells the populace about current events, educates the electorates for meaningful contribution on public issues, and inspires participation which is the hallmark of democracy.
4.     Agenda-Setting Helps in Policing against Abuses: Be it in the political power box or in the streets, the media eye-of-god surveillance polices abuses. The simple knowledge that the media are out there and very ready to make a mountain out of a mere hill of an abuse has served as a deterrence to political, social, economic and or religious abuses. Agenda setting function of the media may not truly reflect the reality but it has achieved a noble feat in getting popular attention against heinous crimes and abuses in the society.   

References
Hall, R. A., & O’Neil, P. H. (1998). Institutions, transitions, and the media: A comparison of Hungary and Romania. In P. O’Neil (Ed.), Communicating democracy: The media and political transitions (pp. 125–146). London, UK: Lynne Rienner.
Hyden, G., & Okigbo, C. (2002). The media and the two waves of democracy. In G. Hyden, M. Leslie, & F. F. Ogundimu (Eds.), Media and democracy in Africa (pp. 29–53). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction
Jakubowicz, K. (2002). Media in transition: The case of Poland. In M. E. Price, B. Rozumilowicz, & S. G. Verhulst (Eds.), Media reform: Democratizing the media, democratizing the state (pp. 203–231). New York, NY: Routledge.
Pasek, J. (2006, August). Fueling or following democracy? Analyzing the role of media liberalization in democratic transition. Paper presented at the American Political Science Association Conference, Philadelphia, August 30–September 3.


Six (6) Moral and Medical Reasons Why Abortion Should Never be Chosen


INTRO: Abortion has been defined as the accidental or deliberate destruction of pregnancy before the birth is due. Several reasons have been floated in support of abortion; most of them are medical while others are social. Some of the reasons for abortion include: Abnormal progress of pregnancies, fetal abnormalities, maternal medical conditions, unwillingness to be a single mother, pregnancy resulting from rape, child abuse or incest, etc. The one million dollar question here is, are the reasons reasonable? The answer is negative and monosyllabic. Deliberate abortions can never be justified judging from the moral and medical reasons listed below:
11. Abortion is an Act of Murder: It has been proved that right from fertilization, life has started in a typical foetus in the womb. Destroying the foetus by implication is assassination. The Fifth Commandment we all know is quite vocal on this: “Thou shall not kill.” As an abortionist, there is no difference between you and a convicted murderer. Yours is even the worse because you roam the streets instead of prison yards having killed a weakling that cannot be able to sue you. Abortionists should please, fear God.
22. Abortion is Against the Golden Rule: The Golden Rule establishes that you should do unto others as you would like to have them do unto you. I wouldn’t want to remind you that you were once in the womb and nobody killed you, and now why should you decide to kill? Even as an adult now, I am sure as hell that you don’t even want to die; that is the more reason you should not kill. Abortion by every scale of measurement is against natural justice, equity and good conscience. You are not even justified for abortion even if the doctor says your life is at stake. Is the doctor God? Aren’t you not going to die for the love of your child?
33. Abortion Could Lead to Death: It will be the greatest joke of the year if for instance, an abortion is committed to “save” the life of the abortionist and then the abortionist dies. Satan I bet will give such a person a very warm welcome befitting a serial murderer (having killed the baby and herself) into hell fire. Cases abound where abortions went awry. You may not be able to predict your fate; therefore, forebear from abortion.
44. Abortion Causes Infertility: This is not surprising. If abortion pills or injection could be able to destroy a foetus, the damage that it could at the same time inflict on the womb is better imagined than described. The choice of abortion can obliterate your dream of future conception permanently, leaving you with all the attendant social humiliation that follow barrenness. Kindly play on the side of caution.
55. Abortion Leads to Depression, Regret and Substance Abuse: Regrets and depression that follow abortion are fertile breeding grounds for substance abuse in the attempt to let bygone be bygone. The sad truth is that he who murders sleep can sleep no more. Futile efforts to shake off the guilt of abortion could worsen the substance abuse, pushing the person to the cliff of insanity.
66. Abortion Makes One Unworthy of God’s Blessings: By abortion, one treats God’s blessing as a curse. Misfortunes, accidents, and other similar ill-fates have hit known abortionists. I bet that you don’t doubt the reality of Karma. Come to think of it, while couples jostle for adoption, you are considering abortion. Kindly have a rethink.      


Three (3) Simple Reasons for Proving the Existence of God


INTRO: God is a spirit. Nobody has seen him face to face. This has cast doubt about His existence in the minds of the people. Some people that believed, later began to falter in their belief in the existence of God because of their various life experience. I was once among the latter group until recently when I found reasons that proved the existence of God to me. They are as follows:

1) Duality of Life: I observed our world and found out that there were two sides of virtually everything in it - day and night, black and white, man and woman, birth and death, good and bad, and now, God and Satan. Majority of the people that don't believe in God, believe in the reality of Satan because they see magicians for instance employing satanic powers in a broad day light to pull their stunts, and evil ones using it to destroy their targets at will. Going by the duality of life, at the polar opposite of the satanic powers sits the power of God; therefore, there is God.

2) Orderliness of the Universe: The universe is too orderly for coincidence. It is by providence. The Solar System, Galaxies, Nabulae, time and seasons, etc follow a very consistent pattern. In their nature, they profess the existence of a supernatural intelligent being as a designer. The designer is God.

3) Hierarchism: This argument focuses on ranking. In every sphere of life, there are ranks. Equality is utopian. Even in the "Animal Farm," it was later discovered that though all animals were equal, some were more equal than others. We are therefore living in the world of ranks: Good - better - best; powerful - more powerful - most powerful; etc. In the ranks of beings (human and spiritual), at the top of the triangle is a being, and the being is God.

Six (6) Reasons for High Unemployment Rate in Nigeria


INTRO: Unemployment has been a recurrent issue in the Nigerian economic discussion due to the alarming percentage of the unemployed in the country. Report by the Bureau of Statistics has it that 38% of the population of Nigeria that falls within the employable age are unemployed and 65% of Nigerian youth face unemployment as at September 2016. Simply put, unemployment could be seen as the  condition of people who are without jobs. It is what exists when members of the labour force are fit and wish to work but cannot get jobs.

Unemployment has different forms such as Frictional Unemployment (a short period between ones old job and the new one), Structural Unemployment ( a mismatch between skill and vacancy), Cyclical/Seasonal Unemployment (employment pattern that follows the rise and fall in demand and supply of the products and services of the recruiting industries due to season or economic dynamics), Technological Unemployment (replacing men with machines), and Chronic Unemployment (a long term unemployment). Nigeria suffers from chronic unemployment, and several reasons such as below are responsible for the ugly condition:

1) Corruption: This is a canker-worm that has eaten deep into the fabrics of Nigeria's status as a country because it frustrates the country from meeting its litany of responsibilities to the citizenry. Described as the use of public office for private gains, corruption has been rocking the Nigeria's ship of progress right from the colonial days. It involves giving and taking of bribes, siphoning of public treasury and violation of due process. Corruption accounts for an army of problems facing Nigeria today including unemployment. It has carted away public funds that could have been used to build industries for job and wealth creation. One out of the huge list of corruption cases in Nigeria was the missing $20 billion at Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) as revealed by the former Governor of the Central Bank of Nigeria, Alhaji Lamido Sanusi Lamido.

2) Overpopulation: The rate of population growth in Nigeria is faster than the resources can provide for. The situation has been described as an elephant in a room. According to reports in Nigeria Health Watch, in 2015, the estimated number of people in Nigeria had grown to 182.2 million, a 300% increase in 56 years. Nigeria is estimated to be the third most populous country in the world by 2050 with a population of 399 million people. Absorbing the gargantuan and still counting population in a meaningful employment in order to achieve full employment level of unemployment is more or less impossible.

3) Monocultural Economy: Since Oil Boom, the oil sector of Nigeria's economy accounted for the 95% of the country's export earnings and 70% of the government's revenue. By implication, other productive sectors of the economy are left behind in mad chase of petro-dollar which ties the fate of the country firmly to the vagaries of the international oil market. Among other things, the resultant unemployment situation arising from the repudiation of other productive sectors of the economy due to Oil Boom in Nigeria has pushed scholars and analysts to describe the Oil Boom as a doom.

4) Poor System of Education: The design of Nigeria's educational system is largely theoretical than practical for skill acquisition; less qualified teachers are recruited due to corruption, and worst still is the lack of facilities for teaching and learning. This kangaroo system has consistently produced "half-baked" graduates with little or no skill to offer the society, but to end up roaming the streets not only as unemployed but also as unemployable.

5) Energy Problem: Power supply in Nigeria has been said to be more epileptic than epilepsy itself. Often times, it is doesn't show up at all talkless of being epileptic. This ugly condition has dissuaded industrialization, and by extension, employment generation. Few brave industries that weather the storm do so at very high cost which often makes them to downsize the labour in order to cut cost.

6) Orientation of the Society: The society has been keyed to believe that the road to success is getting education and then, white collar job. Going by this, graduates don't see opportunities in other places other than in "clean shirt" job positions. None of the graduates wants to be a farmer even when it is said that wealth is created from nature; an artisan even when it is known that  there is dignity in labour; or a small and medium scale merchant even when it is known as a gold mine.

Six (6) Unusual Reasons Your Adsense Application is Repeatedly Denied Approval


INTRO:  Google Adsense in one of the easiest ways to make money online, but it is often times difficult to secure approval for the programme. Google has in place a lot of conditionalities which a publisher must meet in order to join the community. Those conditionalities are the Google Adsense Terms and Conditions, and Programme Policies. Very popular among the publishers, they range from laws against piracy, through morally questionable contents to unethical traffic sources. But it surprises many publishers that after painstaking efforts in observing the rules, Google still deny them permission into Google Ads publishing community. From careful study and frustrating experience, we have been able to identify "unusual" reasons for the rejection of Google Adsense application as listed below:

1) The Use of Google Sample Templates: I found this out by experience. I had made conscious efforts in observing Google Adsense Programme Policies, but I did not know that using the sample templates on Blogger runs foul to the Policy on Design in the Programme Policies. I made all the designs possible on the sample template but little did I know that Google was not impressed. They kept giving me one reason or another for the rejection but did not specifically mention "the sample template." I scaled through the hurdle when I noticed a blog that looked quite professional while it still ran on Blogspot. I checked online on how to look like that and I found different beautiful free blog templates (from New Blogger Themes) which I quickly learnt how to upload and edit (I have knack for technicalities). I then reapplied and Google promptly accepted my website. They indeed need a professional looking website worthy of their ad banners.

2) Absence of Popular Posts Widget on Your Website: You may not believe this but it is true. Google looks out for this widget as a feature of your website. They will scarcely give your application an approval without the widget. Popular Posts widget makes google job of checking your website for policy compliance simple. This widget will chronicle the most viewed posts on your website. You will agree with me that sex-related posts are often popular and will top the list of popular posts on your website. Google will find out the nature of the content on your website at a glance just by looking at the widget. Experience taught me a lot.

3) Presence of Elipsis in Words Written in the Blog:  Elipsis is a mark or series of marks ( ... or * * * , for example) says thefreedictionary.com, used in writing or printing to indicate an omission, especially of letters or words. Elipsis is mostly employed not necessarily for economy of space but for respecting the sensibility of the reader. That is why it is common to see something like f**k, s3x, p*n!s, etc in many blog contents. Google hates them. The caveat is, if you can't say it, don't write it.

4) Absence of Sitemap: Websites without map can hardly be granted an Adsense approval. Sitemap is not that you should be a cartographer, no, it is the act making all the content of your website reachable from a link on your homepage. It is called "Navigation." Google needs it for a better user experience. You can use Pages or Labels widgets on Blogger to achieve this if you operate on the platform.

5) Absence of the Blogger's Brief Information: Google needs the blogger to tell the audience about his or herself in order to solve trust issues. The blogger is required to publish his name, picture and contact such as email address. In other words, the blogger must not be faceless. The "About Me" widget on Blogger solves this issue for those on the platform.

6) Absence of Website Policies: These include the Disclaimer, and Privacy/Cookies Policies. Your website must feature these policies for it to be approved for Adsense. Your reader must be intimated on how the data you collect about them are utilized; and how much the responsibility you pledge to undertake in their use of your website. Google is interested in those policies not just because you are their partner but also because they are interested in protecting the citizens of the cyberworld. Furthermore, it should be remembered that Google has been embroiled in controversy over the use of cookies which assists their ads service. Google expects all their partners to make it brazen that they use cookies and the user could choose to accept, or decline by not visiting the website. You don't need an attorney or special skill to write this policies. You can copy it online and make amends where necessary to fit your website.

Six (6) Reasons for the Relocation of Nigeria's Capital City from Lagos to Abuja

Why The Capital Was Moved From Lagos To Abuja
Abuja

INTRO:  Several countries of the world have experimented with changing of the location of their capital cities. Countries such as Brazil moved her capital city from Rio de Janeiro to the built-for-the-purpose Brasilia in 1961; Kazakhstan moved from Almaty to Astana in 1997; and Cote d'Ivoire moved from Abijan to Yamoussoukro in 1983. In the year 1991, Nigeria joined the ranks of countries that for one reason or another relocated their capital cities when she moved her capital city from Lagos to Abuja.

The move was initiated in 1975 by the military government of General Murtala Mohammed when he set up a 7-man panel under the chairmanship of Dr. Akinola Aguda to examine the issue of a new capital city for Nigeria. The panel after  their studies recommended Abuja and the military government under Decree No. 6 of 1976 established the Federal Capital Development Authority to midwife the planning, designing and developing of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT). The Murtala administration did not live to complete what it started due to the abortive but bloody coup of 1976 that claimed his life. Subsequent governments contributed their quota during their reign but the dream was only actualized in 1991 by the military government of General Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida. The reasons for the relocation of Nigeria's capital city from Lagos to Abuja include the following:

1) Security: Lagos is a coastal city bordering the Atlantic Ocean. This geographical location leaves the city susceptible to attacks from air or sea by enemy countries; and in a war,  when a capital city falls, the whole country has fallen. Unlike Lagos, Abuja is located at the heart of Nigeria's land.

2) Overpopulation: Lagos is a densely populated city due to the fact that it was not just the seat of power but also the commercial nerve centre of Nigeria. It has been the destination for the bulk of Nigeria's rural-urban migration in search of greener pasture. This overpopulation causes serious congestion and environmental degradation, makes nonsense of every developmental efforts in the city, and renders the city unfit for a capital city.

3) Lack of Land for Expansion: Lagos has limited area of land that will accommodate the future expansions of a typical capital city. With an area of 8,000 sq. kms, Abuja is twice the area of Lagos State. Currently covering 250 sq. km, Abuja still have over 7,000 sq. km in reserve for future expansion.

4) Neutrality: Lagos is the land of the Yoruba tribe of Nigeria. Even till today, Yoruba people are not happy when Lagos is referred to as "no man's land." Unlike Lagos, Abuja bestrides different tribes in a way that nobody could lay claim to the land. The entire territory itself was carved out from three state, namely, Niger State which contributed 79% of the land area and 71% of the indigenous population, Nasarawa State which contributed 16% and 21% respectively, and Kogi state which made a contribution of 5% and 8% respectively. This neutral stance of the city explains why it is called the Centre of Unity.

5) Purpose: Lagos city was not built for the purpose of being a capital city, and pushing the the city to fit the purpose if possible is not desirable because of the socio-economic implications. Abuja was designed and built for the purpose of being the capital city of Nigeria.

6) An Expression of Independence: Lagos was made the capital by the colonial masters. Relocation of the capital city from the former colonial base sends the message of repudiation across to the former masters that "Nigeria has come of age, and is no longer under the orbit of any extra continental power." Policies similar to this relocation of the capital city was the changing of currency from Pounds to Naira, and the system of government from Parliamentarism to Presidentialism.

Five (5) Reasons Why the RPM of Your Adsense Account has Reduced


INTRO:  RPM in full is Revenue Per Mille (The word, "mille" has French roots, meaning thousand. It is contained in some English words such as millennium, meaning a thousand years). RPM is all about the amount of money that you will earn from  each 1000 views (impressions) of the ads on your website. If you see for instance, $5 as your RPM on your Adsense Dashborad, it means that you will earn the equivalent amount with a thousand ad impressions on your website. But then, you noticed that your RPM has reduced to a pitiable level, or that it is constantly reducing and you want to know the reason. There are several reasons for the reduction of your RPM, and below are some of the reasons.

1) Social Media Traffics: This is unbelievable but it is true! Traffics from social media such as Facebook sends RPM of Adsense accounts crashing.  The reason is not far-fetched. Social media traffic is less reputable in the blogworld. It could easily be sent in swarms into a website.  Google dislikes it because it gives little or no value to the advertizers. It is no longer news that Google puts advertizers' interests first and does everything possible to give value to the money they spend on adverts on Google Ads Network. You can imagine what will happen to advertizers' budget if a sensational news link for instance is shared on a Facebook group of 250,000 members. The website could receive several thousands of visitors within 5 munites. In that situation, Google simply reduces the RPM so that the resulting several thousands of ads impressions will add little or nothing to your earning. It is therefore advisable to write rich and useful contents that will send traffics to your website from search engines; and stop puting links to your website on social media.

2) Location of the Audience: Advertizers bid more for audience from locations of interest. Generally however, visitors from Europe and the United States of America command higher RPM while Asian audience command lower RPM. This geographical differences in RPM rates, oko.uk argues,  are due to not just by the spending power of the individuals in those countries, but by how established the online adverting market is in those countries.

3) Ad placement and Size: The size of Adsense banners and there placements is another reason for low RPM. Large-sized ad banners have been found to be performing better than smaller ones. The most popular in better performance however is 300×250. Ads placed in less-interest parts of a website could consistently fail to capture the interest of the website user and this affects the RPM.

4) Topic/Niche: Blogs and websites on high-demand keywords such as finance command higher RPM. Also, advertizers prefer to bid higher on targeted micro-niches than general topic blogs. The simple explanation for this fact is that majority of the audience to micro-niche websites are interested audience who are willing to spend for their interests.

5) Advertizers' Budget: There is no fixed price for ad spaces. Advertizers bid for them and each space goes to its highest bidder. If advertizers that come for an ad space generally bid lower, RPM will reduce; and vice versa.

There are several other reasons for the reduction of the RPM of your Adsence Account but the above-listed are the principal reasons. Based on these identifiable reasons, you can begin to make amends especially on those that are within your control and then wait a bit and have your RPM re-appreciate.

Five (5) Reasons for the January, 1966 Coup in Nigeria


INTRO:  In its simplest terms, coup d'etat can be defined as the unconstitutional and violent overthrow of incumbent governments. Coup d'etat is more often than not, treated with scorn in the international comity of nations perhaps because it is believed that military in politics is an aberration. Nigeria, this central disapproval of military rule notwithstanding, has witnessed several coups and counter coups starting from January 15, 1966 when the military made its debut appearance in the politics of the country. The coup toppled the coalition government of Northern Peoples Congress (NPC) and National Congress of Nigerian Citizens (NCNC) led by Alhaji Tafawa Balewa and Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe as the Prime Minister and President in that order. No fewer than eleven persons died in the bloody coup; and they include: Alhaji Tafawa Balewa (the Prime Minister), Sir Ahmadu Bello (Premier of the Northern Region), Festus Okotie-Eboh (Finance Minister), Samuel Ladoke Akintola (Premier of  the Western Region). Also, Brig. S.A. Ademulegun, Major S.A. Adegoke, Lt. Col. J.Y. Pam, Brig. Zakari Maimalari and Col. Kur Mohammed died. Others who lost their lives included Lt. Col. Largema, S/Lt. James Odu, Col. S.A. Shodeinde and Lt. Col. A.G. Unegbe.
Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe was away in London when it happened; while the Premier of the Eastern Region, Dr. Michael Okpala was hosting the Archbishop of Canterbury when the mutineers stormed his house; and they decided to respect the presence of the international figure. The survival of the two Igbo persons above from the coup strengthened accusations that the coup was an Igbo coup. The accusations were far from the truth. Below are the reasons for the 1966 coup in Nigeria.

1) Corruption by the Officials: The Army pulled the trigger against the elected and appointed officials of the First Republic on accounts of brazen corruption by the officials.  Soon after that intervention, Major Kaduna Nzeogwu offered reasons to justify their action. In his broadcast, he identified as enemies "the political profiteers, the swindlers, the men in high and low places that seek bribes and demand ten per cent, those that seek to help the country divided permanently so that they can remain in office as ministers or VIPs at least, the tribalists, the nepotists, those that make the country look big for nothing before international circles, those who have corrupted our society and put the Nigerian political calendar back by their words and deeds."
Indeed, there were several cases of financial misappropriations in the First Republic Nigeria. For instance, Nnamdi Azikiwe was investigated by Foster-Sutton Tribunal and found guilty of using his official power to finance his distressed African Continental Bank (ACB). In Western Region, Coker Commission in 1962, found Obafemi Awolowo, the first Premier of the Western Region guilty of financial mismanagement in Western Region Marketing Board. Other First Republic government officials looted public funds with impunity. KO Mbadiwe, the Minister of Aviation flaunted his wealth by building a palace in his hometown. When asked where he had gotten the money to build such a mansion, KO replied, ”From sources known and unknown.” Festus Okotie-Eboh in a reply to charges of corruption went biblical, saying that “To those that have, more shall be given. From those that do not have, shall be taken even the little they have.” He was notorious for flamboyant and weird wardrobe as virtually all his clothes trailed several yards behind him wherever he moved. Of a similar wardrobe was the Sarduana of Sokoto and the Premier of the Northern Region, Sir Ahmadu Bello whose wardrobe was one of the most elaborate in the world. Furthermore, a report from the inquiry into the corruption practices in Nigeria Ports Authority and other corporations of the First Republic by Ironsi government revealed that a number of ministers, including Okotie-Eboh, Ribadu, and R.Njoku had formed companies and used their influence to secure contracts. KO Mbadiwe was reported to have gone to the extent of securing a contract for a non-registered company. The jubilant Nigerians following the news of coup pointed the fact that the coup was a welcome development.

2) Western Nigerian Crisis: The famous political unrest that bedeviled the Western Region was a fallout of personality issues and ideological differences of the duo of Obafemi Awolowo and Samuel Ladoke Akintola, in the leadership of Action Congress (AG). Awolowo favoured socialism as epitomized in his free education programme; but SL Akintola now on saddle as the Premier of the Western Region increased school fees as well as other anti-socialist policies; and refused to make amends as directed by Awolowo. possibly, due to influence by Chief Awolowo, the Western House of Assembly passed a vote of no confidence on Akintola and the Governor of the Region, Sir Adesoji Aderemi, removed him as the Premier and appointed Alhaji Dauda Adegbenro as a replacement. Crisis erupted in the region to the extent that the region became known as the "Wild Wild West." The Federal Government declared a state of emergency (which was the first ever in Nigeria) in the region and appointed Moses Majekodunmi as the Sole Administrator. Awolowo protested the action of the Central government citing crisis such as in Okirika, Eastern Region in which the Central government did not make such intervention. He accused the Central government of foul play in support of the Ladoke's faction. Instead of a fresh election for the Region as advised by Nnamdi Azikiwe, the Prime Minister, Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa reinstated Akintola in December 1962 and capped his political stroke with the arrest and detention of Chief Awolowo for treason and coup plotting. By the 1964 election, the Nigerian National Democratic Party (NNDP), a breakaway party from AG, led by Akintola had entered an alliance with NPC and formed Nigerian National Allance (NNA). The splinter party won the Western Region election through massive rigging. The announcement of the result was greeted with widespread arson and killing (Operation Wetie). Perhaps because the favoured candidate won the election, there was no state of emergency declared on this second wave of the Western Region's crisis; instead the Federal government sent security forces to support the victory of Chief Ladoke Akintola and Chief Remi Fani Kayode's NNDP. This state of warre persisted in the Region until 1966 when dissatisfied young majors pulled the trigger against the political malaise.

3) To Install Awolowo as the Head of State: The revolutionaries of the January 15, 1966 coup by and large were disinterested in ruling Nigeria after the coup. Their plan included detailing an officer who would fly to Calabar and release Chief Awolowo from prison and fly him to Lagos to install him as a head of state, "whether he likes it ot not." This fact is contained in Awolowo's prison diary entries and the book: "The Five Majors" by Ben Gbulie. The coupists obviously must have felt bad about the victimization that Awolowo suffered in the hands of the government in Lagos.

4) Domino Effect from Coups Outside Nigeria: News about the successes of coups especially in other African countries is another reason for the January, 1966 coup in Nigeria given that majority of the army officers were mates in military training schools abroad. They had felt that if their mates could succeed there, then they would succeed here. The very first coup on African soil was on July 23, 1952 when Lt. Col Gamal Abdel-Nasser terminated the reign of King Farouk in Egypt. Two years later, the same Nesser man, overthrew General Naguib. Thence, the floodgate of coups and counter coups was opened in Africa. It hit Sudan in 1958. From Sudan to Benin Republic (then Dahomey), Algeria, Zaire, Burkina Faso (then Upper Volta) and on to Liberia and Ghana among others, including Nigeria, the nationals woke up to martial music highlighting the coming of a new government; so that from Nasser of Egypt in 1952 till date, Africa has seen no fewer than 40 forceful overthrows of government.

5) Personal Ambition for Joining the Army: This is also one of the reasons for the January, 1966 coup. Some of the coupists right from Adam, joined the army simply to carry out a coup to correct political errors which they disliked in the seat of power. This fact is available in the account of the coup as given by Adewale Adegboyega in his work, "Why We Struck."